Occupancy Density per Floor
• Floor loading/structural limits: The building must be able
to bear the weight of any structural changes, as well as the occupancy load.
• Floor-to-floor heights: Interior ceiling heights of 9.5 feet are
optimum for lighting, acoustics, and thermal control. Floor-to-floor heights,
minus the required ceiling plenum, determine interior ceiling heights.
• Column density: Column grids determine the flexibility of the
space. For interior planning, columns are obstructions that can create unusable,
• Egress limits: Current codes for safety, such as adequate exits
in the event of a fire, must be met.
• Elevator capacitance: In buildings of more than three stories,
elevators must be able to accommodate people and equipment without lengthy delays.
HVAC Infrastructure Indices
• HVAC: Zones should be small enough, with ample thermostats and
diffuser density, to provide thermal comfort and air quality. Assess typical
cooling load costs or BTU costs per square feet. Assess distance from core to
window wall to evaluate lengths of runs.
• Diffuser density: Smaller zones for heating and cooling diffusers
increase thermal comfort.
• Ventilation capacitance: Standards for air exchange rates must
Network Infrastructure Indices
• Electrical power capacitance: Adequate service for current use,
from HVAC and elevators to lighting and computers, must be available. Evaluate
current and future needs to determine the watts and outlets required per square
• Network support: Telecommunications systems require significant
vertical and horizontal channels for cabling; the structure and space must accommodate
the anticipated volume and change rate. Will the plenum be required for cabling?
If so, is there adequate space for anticipated volumes? For growth? For change?
• Density of data, power, and voice outlets: Access to services
must be available to accommodate increasing and changing needs. Evaluate current
and future needs to determine the telecommunications outlets required per square
• UPS support: What degree of protection will be required?
• Data cabling: What is the required speed of data transfer per
workstation? What phone system will be specified? How will cabling support these
Lighting Infrastructure Indices
• Light fixture density: The type and density of fixture should
match the functions in the workplace.
• Lighting quality: Individual task lighting should maintain consistent
footcandles on worksurfaces without glare, according to Illuminating Engineering
Society (IES) standards.
• Lighting zone size: Smaller zones, with more controllers, enhance
the quality of light for the maximum number of workers. Assess typical lighting
load cost or wattage costs per square feet.
• Daylight: Evaluate the percentage of rentable square feet within
20 feet of a window.
• Control: Assess the degree of user control over light levels via
off/on switches and dimmers. Consider occupancy sensors for energy savings.
Facility Management Indices
• Costs: Assess the amount spent per year as percentage of current
• Ratio: Evaluate the number of full-time exempt (FTE) workers to
• Change: Assess anticipated churn rate of FTE workers.