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10/25/2011

Vehicle Risk Assessment & Physics 101

By David David Dickinson, Delta Scientific

 
Vehicle-Risk-Assessment
 

When evaluating the security risk for a car bomber or crasher for a given facility, focus on the weights and velocities of vehicles that could be used to attempt penetration into sensitive areas. 

A vehicle moving towards a barricade has a certain kinetic energy, the major measure of how much "hitting power" it possesses.  Mathematically, kinetic energy is derived from the vehicle velocity and its weight (mass).  On impact, some energy is converted to heat, sound and permanent deformation of the vehicle.  To stop the vehicle, the barricade must absorb the remainder. 

The remaining energy varies depends primarily on the velocity of the vehicle at the moment of impact.  The amount of kinetic energy possessed by a vehicle changes by the square of its velocity.  A vehicle moving at 50 mph has 25 times as much kinetic energy as at 10 mph.  An armored car weighing 30 times as much as a Toyota moving at 10 mph has less hitting power than the Toyota moving at 60 mph!

Because of the relationship of velocity to the total kinetic energy, every effort must be made by the security engineer to force a vehicle to slow down before it reaches the barricade.  The most frequently used technique is to require a sharp turn immediately in front of the barrier.  When vehicle speed is reduced by 50 percent, "hitting power" is reduced four times.  If the speed is reduced 2/3rds, the force of impact is reduced nine times.

 Upon designing a way to slow down vehicle approach, precautions should also be taken that the attacking car cannot make a "corner cutting shot" at a barricade.  Often, only a light post defines a turning point and a speeding car can take it out and not even hesitate.  Knolls and other impediments should be considered. Failing to understand this and not using the proper equipment to counter threats leads to a false sense of security.


 

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04/24/2014

Explore real-time green building data through the newly launched data visualization resource from the USGBC.

04/23/2014

A key part to curbing emissions is working with local and city officials, tenants, and other groups to help make entire communities more sustainable. BOMA International shares the following strategies for greening your facility and community.

04/21/2014

Lighting fixes target the bottom line.

04/16/2014

The U.S. Army plans to start development of a solar array that will provide about 25% of the annual installation electricity requirement of Fort Huachuca, Arizona.

04/15/2014

The EPA's annual greenhouse gas emissions report is now available.

04/14/2014

Are you what some would call a “climate-change denier”? If so, you'll want to read this.

04/10/2014
Los Angeles has remained the top city for ENERGY STAR certified building since 2008, while Washington, D.C. continues to hold onto second place for the fifth consecutive year, according to a new list released by the EPA.
04/09/2014
Green construction has grown massively over a short period of time.
04/07/2014
Field demonstrations of newly proven energy-efficient technologies are yielding valuable results for the U.S. Navy, helping it meet energy goals.
04/03/2014
Building owners in Chicago now have more options when it comes to getting their building energy data verified.
04/01/2014
According to a new report from Eaton, such outages are up 15% in 2013 over 2012 and over half of those surveyed believe that downtime could have been prevented.
03/31/2014
The newly revised ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 105-2014, Standard Methods of Determining, Expressing, and Comparing Building Energy Performance and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, aims to provide a consistent method of measuring, expressing, and comparing the energy performance of buildings.
03/27/2014
Facility managers face an every expanding array of sustainability choices and challenges, but for the next generation of FMs, green practices could be second nature as sustainability literacy enters the K-12 school system.
03/25/2014
While the economic recession explains the decline in sales in 2008 and 2009, it is much less clear why sales have continued to fall.
03/24/2014
University of Washington (UW) scientists have built the thinnest known LED that can be used as a source of light energy in electronics.
03/21/2014
Mississippi Governor Phil Bryant signed Senate Bill 2378 into law, effectively enacting the state’s first building code.
03/19/2014
In an attempt to improve building energy performance, the DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory has released a web-based tool called the Technology Performance Exchange, or TPEx.
03/18/2014
Could green building practices pose unanticipated life-safety hazards?
03/13/2014
Worried about workplace violence in your facility? Researchers have discovered that “mindfully observing” high-risk employees can avert danger and workplace violence.
03/11/2014
Through the DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program, every dollar the DOE has spent on building energy codes over the past two decades has resulted in $400 in energy cost savings.
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