Blowing air into your building can prevent you from blowing your stack about its envelope performance.
Air leakage testing quantitatively measures air seeping through your enclosure. The process involves pressurizing a space with blower door fans to create a detectable differential across the envelope.
But it’s not always an appropriate method for problem detection. Pressure testing is necessary when problems have become particularly invasive or if quantitative analysis is desired to prove compliance, verify performance, or identify opportunities for upgrades.
Become an educated consumer of this service by building a rudimentary understanding of building science and enclosure performance. They say not to judge books by their covers – but the same can’t be said of buildings.
Contemplate the Clues
Looking for issues actually starts with listening. Heed occupant complaints as a source of valuable information. “If there are problems, your people will let you know,” says Dean Lewis, education and technical information manager at the American Architectural Manufacturers Association, which provides standards on testing methods for the industry.
IAQ surveys may turn up comments on dust, mold, pests, and exterior noise, explains Lee Durston, senior building science consultant at engineering firm Morrison Hershfield. Although it may be easy to disregard their remarks, use occupants as your eyes and ears in the field.
Perhaps the most fickle and frustrating complaints concern thermal comfort. But drafts and stuffiness can be significant indicators.
“Pay attention to the presence of personal comfort devices like heaters or fans,” recommends Doug Phelps, director of business development at window and door supplier Pella EFCO Commercial Solutions. “Seeing those is a good clue that the space isn’t performing.”
Lastly, if moisture has penetrated the system, you can be certain that air has. “Relatively common clues include water staining or the presence of detectable moisture at various locations like wall surfaces, ceiling tiles, window and door frames, or carpet and flooring finishes,” explains Daniel J. Lemieux, principal and unit manager at engineering firm Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates.
It can be helpful to make a few notes in cases of apparent water leakage failure. “Were leaks noticed during a severe storm? Did your local news outlet comment on particularly strong winds or wind-driven rain?” says Lewis. “That information can assist in evaluating whether the system actually failed to meet its ratings or if conditions exceeded the manufacturer’s design.”
Now that you know what evidence to look for, you can ascertain whether pressure testing can further your forensic investigation.
Mull Methodology and Motivation
If any combination of the aforementioned clues has been observed at your site, air leakage testing can help you identify the root causes. If a problem becomes invasive, you want to be sure to get the solution right the first time.
“Pressure testing is a troubleshooting tool in a lot of practices,” says Ned Lyon, staff consultant at engineering firm Simpson Gumpertz & Heger. “But it is also used as a way of quantifying or categorizing performance.”
The need for quantitative testing continues to increase as energy code requirements for airtightness become more stringent and designers include targets for specialty high-humidity buildings such as pools and museums, Lyon explains. The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requires a dedicated air barrier for the enclosure and allows whole building air leakage testing to demonstrate compliance.
Similarly, pressure testing is used to prove the performance of certain construction projects and upgrades. After making improvements to glazing, storefronts, curtainwalls, or other envelope components, make sure the manufacturer measures and verifies their claims.
Regardless of your motivation for implementing pressure testing, having a basic understanding of how the process works will help you get the most out of it.
A calibrated fan about 30 inches in diameter can move up to 6,000 cfm of air, explains Lyon. A frame and cover mount up to three fans to a doorway. The fans then create a pressure differential across the building enclosure. Although some crafty FMs attempt to crudely mimic pressurization with makeshift methods, this intensive procedure necessitates outside expertise.
“We’ve received questions like, ‘My windows are leaking – how close should I be able to hold a cigarette lighter without it blowing out?’” adds Lewis. “Variations of do-it-yourself testing have involved leaf blowers and garden hoses, but there are no ‘kitchen drawer’ tests for air leakage or water penetration.”
The size of your building and scope of the test will determine where to go for help. “There are several small firms that can handle residential-size buildings and one- or two-story structures,” explains Lyon. “A local utility program may even perform blower door testing as part of an energy audit. When you start moving up in size, you run into trouble.”
Designing and setting up a test is an art, Lyon adds. Computer controls monitor multiple fans at once, and although the actual test may only take a couple hours, the planning can take several days.
A simpler and perhaps less costly approach is to shirk measuring leakage and instead utilize tracer smoke to visually identify problem spots. “Looking around outside for the smoke can help you find leakage locations,” says Lyon. “It’s a more qualitative method.”
Ponder Problems and Realize Remedies
The solutions you need can be many, ranging from the simple, such as sealant or gasket replacement, to the drastic, like recladding, explains Matt Williams, associate principal at engineering firm Arup.
“Testing can open a can of worms,” he adds. “There is a question about expectations and a discussion about useful life. When is remedial work appropriate and when is there a need for recladding? A quick fix may last 10 years, but what could a replacement do? You can keep investing in patchwork every year, but at some point you start to think about more fundamental changes.”
Identifying air leakage helps you set the baseline condition for your facility. From there you can assess the bare minimum to be done to keep your building relevant in the current market, says Williams. Progressive owners and FMs may use the quantitative analysis as selling points for significant strides.
“There are buildings and districts in Los Angeles where they’re aiming to reduce energy consumption by 70-80% over the next two decades,” Williams explains. “They first look at existing stock and identify easy, short-term, low-hanging fruit items and then go to longer payback, capital expenditure projects. So testing is certainly very relevant to buildings that are in desperate need of attention.”
The firms that provide this analysis should be able to help FMs provide that TLC. Just perform your due diligence before enlisting them.
Vet the Vested Factions
Be sure to perform a thorough background check on the firm that offers pressurization testing. Ensure that they are performing tests in accordance with industry standards.
Beyond that, find a firm that can help you implement actionable items that arise out of the testing. “Don’t just go for the company that comes in with the fans and gives you a number and a report,” warns Lyon. “Make sure they can consider the problem you need to deal with and figure out the best way to solve it.”
Some of the symptoms outlined above can be confusing. They make it difficult to distinguish if you’re having air barrier or HVAC problems. Call upon experts that can help digest this muck.
“Use someone with knowledge about envelopes as well as testing. They know where to look and have X-ray eyes for this stuff,” says Lyon. “The FM is stuck with the calls of ‘I’m uncomfortable’ and ‘Go fix this’ or ‘Adjust that.’ He’s juggling a lot of things and can’t always look at the big picture.”